SSL — An interface to the SSL-specific parts of OpenSSL

This module handles things specific to SSL. There are two objects defined: Context, Connection.

OpenSSL.SSL.SSLv2_METHOD
OpenSSL.SSL.SSLv3_METHOD
OpenSSL.SSL.SSLv23_METHOD
OpenSSL.SSL.TLSv1_METHOD
OpenSSL.SSL.TLSv1_1_METHOD
OpenSSL.SSL.TLSv1_2_METHOD

These constants represent the different SSL methods to use when creating a context object. If the underlying OpenSSL build is missing support for any of these protocols, constructing a Context using the corresponding *_METHOD will raise an exception.

OpenSSL.SSL.VERIFY_NONE
OpenSSL.SSL.VERIFY_PEER
OpenSSL.SSL.VERIFY_FAIL_IF_NO_PEER_CERT

These constants represent the verification mode used by the Context object’s set_verify() method.

OpenSSL.SSL.FILETYPE_PEM
OpenSSL.SSL.FILETYPE_ASN1

File type constants used with the use_certificate_file() and use_privatekey_file() methods of Context objects.

OpenSSL.SSL.OP_SINGLE_DH_USE
OpenSSL.SSL.OP_SINGLE_ECDH_USE

Constants used with set_options() of Context objects.

When these options are used, a new key will always be created when using ephemeral (Elliptic curve) Diffie-Hellman.

OpenSSL.SSL.OP_EPHEMERAL_RSA

Constant used with set_options() of Context objects.

When this option is used, ephemeral RSA keys will always be used when doing RSA operations.

OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_TICKET

Constant used with set_options() of Context objects.

When this option is used, the session ticket extension will not be used.

OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_COMPRESSION

Constant used with set_options() of Context objects.

When this option is used, compression will not be used.

OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_SSLv2
OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_SSLv3
OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_TLSv1
OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_TLSv1_1
OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_TLSv1_2
OpenSSL.SSL.OP_NO_TLSv1_3

Constants used with set_options() of Context objects.

Each of these options disables one version of the SSL/TLS protocol. This is interesting if you’re using e.g. SSLv23_METHOD to get an SSLv2-compatible handshake, but don’t want to use SSLv2. If the underlying OpenSSL build is missing support for any of these protocols, the OP_NO_* constant may be undefined.

OpenSSL.SSL.SSLEAY_VERSION
OpenSSL.SSL.SSLEAY_CFLAGS
OpenSSL.SSL.SSLEAY_BUILT_ON
OpenSSL.SSL.SSLEAY_PLATFORM
OpenSSL.SSL.SSLEAY_DIR

Constants used with SSLeay_version() to specify what OpenSSL version information to retrieve. See the man page for the SSLeay_version() C API for details.

OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_OFF
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_CLIENT
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_SERVER
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_BOTH
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_NO_AUTO_CLEAR
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_LOOKUP
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL_STORE
OpenSSL.SSL.SESS_CACHE_NO_INTERNAL

Constants used with Context.set_session_cache_mode() to specify the behavior of the session cache and potential session reuse. See the man page for the SSL_CTX_set_session_cache_mode() C API for details.

New in version 0.14.

OpenSSL.SSL.OPENSSL_VERSION_NUMBER

An integer giving the version number of the OpenSSL library used to build this version of pyOpenSSL. See the man page for the SSLeay_version() C API for details.

OpenSSL.SSL.NO_OVERLAPPING_PROTOCOLS

A sentinel value that can be returned by the callback passed to Context.set_alpn_select_callback() to indicate that the handshake can continue without a specific application protocol.

New in version 19.1.

OpenSSL.SSL.ContextType

See Context.

OpenSSL.SSL.ConnectionType

See Connection.

class OpenSSL.SSL.Connection(context, socket)

A class representing SSL connections.

context should be an instance of Context and socket should be a socket [1] object. socket may be None; in this case, the Connection is created with a memory BIO: see the bio_read(), bio_write(), and bio_shutdown() methods.

exception OpenSSL.SSL.Error

This exception is used as a base class for the other SSL-related exceptions, but may also be raised directly.

Whenever this exception is raised directly, it has a list of error messages from the OpenSSL error queue, where each item is a tuple (lib, function, reason). Here lib, function and reason are all strings, describing where and what the problem is. See err(3) for more information.

exception OpenSSL.SSL.ZeroReturnError

This exception matches the error return code SSL_ERROR_ZERO_RETURN, and is raised when the SSL Connection has been closed. In SSL 3.0 and TLS 1.0, this only occurs if a closure alert has occurred in the protocol, i.e. the connection has been closed cleanly. Note that this does not necessarily mean that the transport layer (e.g. a socket) has been closed.

It may seem a little strange that this is an exception, but it does match an SSL_ERROR code, and is very convenient.

exception OpenSSL.SSL.WantReadError

The operation did not complete; the same I/O method should be called again later, with the same arguments. Any I/O method can lead to this since new handshakes can occur at any time.

The wanted read is for dirty data sent over the network, not the clean data inside the tunnel. For a socket based SSL connection, read means data coming at us over the network. Until that read succeeds, the attempted OpenSSL.SSL.Connection.recv(), OpenSSL.SSL.Connection.send(), or OpenSSL.SSL.Connection.do_handshake() is prevented or incomplete. You probably want to select() on the socket before trying again.

exception OpenSSL.SSL.WantWriteError

See WantReadError. The socket send buffer may be too full to write more data.

exception OpenSSL.SSL.WantX509LookupError

The operation did not complete because an application callback has asked to be called again. The I/O method should be called again later, with the same arguments.

Note

This won’t occur in this version, as there are no such callbacks in this version.

exception OpenSSL.SSL.SysCallError

The SysCallError occurs when there’s an I/O error and OpenSSL’s error queue does not contain any information. This can mean two things: An error in the transport protocol, or an end of file that violates the protocol. The parameter to the exception is always a pair (errnum, errstr).

Context objects

Context objects have the following methods:

Session objects

Session objects have no methods.

Connection objects

Connection objects have the following methods:

Footnotes

[1]Actually, all that is required is an object that behaves like a socket, you could even use files, even though it’d be tricky to get the handshakes right!